Historic Evidence Found in Ancient Egypt and Throughout
The Old World
Texas Freemason – September 1920
Editor’s Note: There are many practical-minded brethren in the modem Craft who, though good and active Masons, are little interested in questions of antiquity relating to the order. However, the antiquity of Masonry is one of the supports that has given it appeal to the greatest minds and the finest types of men of past generations as well as the present. It is proof of the great truth embodied in Masonry that endures like the truth of nature itself. Some of the so-called evidence produced by Masonic scholars is rather vague and not established perhaps to the satisfaction of a jury of twelve sitting in judgment; but such facts as Bro. Higgins, quoted in the following article, has discovered are at least as authentic and credible as much of the evidence upon which many of the accepted facts of profane history are founded. This treatise is reproduced for the benefit of Masons who find pleasure in the study of these questions. It has had extensive publication in the profane press.
With the recent explorations in the Soudan region of Africa of the ruins of Napata, the ancient capital of Ethiopia (the Kush of the Old Testament), bringing to light an ancient temple of Amon containing a huge Masonic altar, and with archaeologists getting ready to renew their explorations in Palestine and the Euphrates valley, antiquarians are expecting further additions to the vast mass of evidence of the worldwide spread of Primitive Freemasonry, which conceals in its rites, symbols and ceremonies the teaching and belief m the “Grand Architect” and “Great Geometrician of the Universe,” a one and supreme God.
The most noted Masonic antiquarian in the United States, Frank G. Higgins, thirty-second degree, who has passed twenty-five years and travelled the globe in his search for Masonic relics, expects the explorations to bring to light much new material that will link the mound builders of the Mississippi Valley, the Mayas of Yucatan, the ancient Egyptians and the Chaldees into one primitive brotherhood.
“It is true that Freemasonry is the parent of all religion, the original world-wide cosmic gnosis, diffused in ancient times to the uttermost ends of the earth,” said Mr. Higgins when seen in his Brooklyn home surrounded by hundreds of books and case after case of Masonic relics. “Freemasonry is the Pompeii of prehistoric science. All the Masonic ritual, its Egyptian signs, its Chaldean grips, its Sanskrit passwords, its ancient Hebrew symbols, its cabalistic allusions and its historical record are supremely scientific and a survival through long ages, by various underground channels, of the knowledge of the universe which was gained by Sabean astronomers from the temple tops of Chaldea, India and China and recorded by the equally learned geometers and mathematicians of the ancient Orient.
Origin Of Great Dials
“It was the knowledge, concealed within the brotherhood, that enabled them to build the gigantic sun dials, such as that at Stonehenge, in England. The two pillars of Masonry today are the same as those which stood before the Temple of Solomon, erected by the same building fraternity, under the supervision of the priest-architect who builds the Sun Temple at Tyre, before which similar pillars stood. They are the same pillars as those that stood before the ancient temples in America when Cortez gazed in wonder on the civilization of the Aztecs. They are the same pillars that fixed the solstitial points in the first crude circles of stone, with a central stone representing the sun, and the same pillars which became the Temple of Janus among the Romans, the totem poles of modern savages, and the Jakin and Boaz of European cathedrals.
“The key to the entire secret system is to be found in the ancient system, preserved from ages long anterior to their reputed time by the Israelites, of using identical characters for letters and numbers, a system called gematria, and upon which a simple mathematical formula, 10-5-6-5, is shown to be the basic source of all manifested existence-that formula when presented in the Hebrew letters corresponding to the numbers bring ‘Jod-Ha-Vv-Ha,’ or in English ‘J-H-V-H,’ or Jehovah.
“If this remarkable fact had been confined to the sacred writings of the Hebrews it might be accepted as a peculiar outcropping of national genius, but this is not the case. My researches reveal the presence of an ‘esoteric,’ or ‘mystery’ Jehovah worship throughout the entire ancient world as the basis of all the outwardly pantheistic cults; the real knowledge being concealed from the mass by the priesthood and rulers, because it was too high for them to grasp. The worship of the Great First Principle, defined and also hidden by the mathematical Jehovah glyph, was at one time spread over the whole expanse of anciently civilized America, whether represented by the vanished race of mound builders of our own United States ·or the perished races of Mexico, Central and South America. This later wonderful fact may as readily be verified by the visitor to such a purely American collection as that in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, or the American Museum of Natural History, in New York, as by the digger in Euphrates mud or Egyptian sands.
Shown In Modem Lines
“The crowning secret of the ancients, as well as of our own time, is that the study of the structural proportions of our universe as evinced in lines of force and direction, cyclic time periods, celestial areas and visible parts, reveals the fact that it is of definite form, perfectly balanced proportion and just such a synthesis of the principles of pure geometry as to .show that the features exhibited are from the same causative source as that which geometrizes the snowflake, the crystal, and the blossom. Hence the expression used in Masonry of the Grand Architect and the Great Geometrician of the Universe.
“The ancient Egyptians adopted as the key to this great cosmic philosophy the famous Pythagorean triangle of 3x4x5 proportions, which is the basis of the celebrated forty-seventh proposition of Euclid. They called the three sides Osiris Isis and Horus, considering the first two as spirit and matter and the latter as nature, evolving from the wedding of the other two. This triangle represented as the ‘Eye of Horus’ and typifying the sun, became the ‘All Seeing Eye’ of Freemasonry.
“The value of the Hebrew letters in the famous triangle is 543, which is half of an oblong of 3×4 the other half of which is 345. The sum of both equals 888 and is the value of the letters in the Greek New Testament name, Jesus. An oblong of 3×4 contains three of 4×9, and vice versa. The oblong of 4×9 was represented symbolically as the Atef crown on the head of the Egyptian Sun-god Ra, whose name really means ‘light.’
“From this simple proportion alone, according to the methods of the ancient Egyptians, can be at once correctly delineated all the main physical features of our universe in absolutely correct astronomical proportions, and in so doing is evolved the most sacred of ancient symbols, the trapezoid of 10-5-65 proportions, which became known as J-H-V-H among the Jews, I-H-0-H in Phoenicia I-H-U-H in Chaldea, H-U-H-I in Egypt, OI-HA-HU in India, HO-HI and FO-HI in China and I-0-W-A in ancient America. We find the Jehovah symbol as the shoulders and arm of Osiris, as he judges the souls in Amenti, in the Egyptian ‘Book of the Dead,’ and as the apron worn by the mysterious stone Colossi of Quiriguá, Guatemala, copies of which are in our own American Museum of Natural History.
The Great Pyramid
“We find the Masonic keystone to be not merely an architectural requisite but the angle of 23 ½ degrees, or the correct inclination of the axis of the earth to the pole of the ecliptic, and to embody the vertical section of the great Pyramid of Gizeh four times repeated. We find the little clay idols of the parted aboriginal races of Colombia, South America, decorated with the geometrical glyphs of this secret order, the ornaments of the robes of Ute ancient Inca priests in Peru, but exemplifications of the same sacred figures, and the amulets of the Mayas and Toltecs, in Mexico, also engraved with them.
“That there must have been some world-wide organization to distribute these symbols in ancient and prehistoric times is evinced by the fact that by common consent the ancient Egyptians and the ancient Mexicans constructed pyramids, which is shown by the great Pyramid of Gizeh, in Egypt, and the Teocalli of Chichen Itza, Yucatan, as leading examples, were component parts of a single geometrical problem, the key to which is the simple Masonic apron as worn today and the graphic symbol of which covenant is still preserved as a cosmic figure among the Hopi Indians of Arizona.”
In discussing the Masonic keystone Mr. Higgins displayed examples picked up in his travels from China, India, ancient Tyre, Egypt and Palestine that all were cut on the angle of 23 ½ degrees, but perhaps his most precious specimens were several black serpentine amulets from Yucatan and Central America more than three thousand years old that displayed the keystone and also the inverted Tau cross, so familiar. to Masonic brethren in their lodge work. In pointing out the triangle of “equal areas” on the forehead of the amulet and the keystone nose Mr. Higgins drew attention to the fact that the Jewish worshipper today describes with his fingers this triangle in the same place when making his invocation on the Day of Atonement.
Another exceedingly rare specimen was an early Akkadian or Hittite seal expressing a triangle with three Masonic dots and the sacred proportions of 3×4 and 4×5, a total of sixteen, meaning “J-A-H,” the universe.
“While these keystones are very valuable in proving my contention that Freemasonry was Widespread even in prehistoric times, I consider the Masonic apron preeminent as the symbol of hidden mysteries of Masonry’ said Mr. Higgins. “It, too, is based on the Pythagorean triangle which, as I said, was used to conceal the mysteries of the Egyptian religion. The priests knew that the letter I, 0, H, or J, V, H, which were publicly applied to the sides of the triangle and called Isis, Osiris and Horus, were the secret mathematical formulae which they considered the key to the universe.
Hope of Humanity
‘If you will read in a good book on mythology the story of the death of Osiris, slain by his brother Typhon, and the long search for his mutated body by the disconsolate widow, Isis, you Understand, especially if you are a Mason, how the hope of humanity was fixed on the ‘widow’s son,’ the youthful Spring Sun God, H-U-R-A-M, as
his name was abbreviated, whose birth also constituted the resurrection of his father, Osiris, with whom he was identified.
“The development of the famous Pythagorean triangle also forms the triangle that is the base of the Masonic Tau cross. The multiplication of the Pythagorean triangle by four gives the base for the Magian’s philosophy and develops the form of the Masonic apron just as worn today in the lodge room, it is the sixty-four square that I refer to and this square (our familiar checker board) also has hidden within it the exact geometrical proportions of the Gizeh Pyramid.
“Perhaps the most interesting Egyptian cut I have is that showing Pharaoh invested with the triangular Masonic apron, holding in his right hand the grand emblem and the last grade attained-the Ankh cross-in Masonic Communication with one of that order, whose head is covered with a mask, representing the head of the god Thoth. Examination of the old Egyptian monuments, or pictures of such, reveal the fact that the apron is the badge of all the gods, kings, hierophants, and priests engaged in the rites of public worship. The apron of the ordinary celebrant seems to be a triangle of white cloth suspended from the waist in front and pinned at the comers to the tunic at each side. In the case of the Grand Master the apron is very elaborate in design. The figures represent the rising and setting sun in the lower comer, and the sun at meridian. The rays of the sun are so directed as to describe a regular procession of geometrical angles, such as seen on a Gnomon. Over this sun apron is worn the serpent apron, a modern Masonic apron as worn in lodge and chapter has descended intact in every particular from these ancient brethren of the square and compass.”
Mr. Higgins explained that the secret of the apron resides entirely in its proportions and showed by a diagram that they were based on a triangle having an apex of fifty-four degrees and two bottom angles of sixty-three degrees each. He said that these two numbers were both eminently sacred Masonic numerals, belonging to the “Nine” or “Three times Three” series. He demonstrated that the proportions of the Egyptian Pyramids were all concealed in the same geometrical figure upon which the Masonic apron was constructed and from his cases of relics brought several amulet aprons that were true in angle or indicated by dots or indentations the true proportions. He displayed a copy from a Peruvian vase which showed a priest of the Incas carrying a staff with a six-pointed star in one hand and a Masonic apron in the other. This figure, which may be seen in the American Museum of Natural History in New York, is displayed throughout the Andean ruins or modifications of the apron are run into borders around the Incan pottery. Perhaps the best example of the apron in America, according to Mr. Higgins, is that found on the statues and little clay images of the ancient Mayas which litter the jungle forests of Yucatan on the sites of the ruined cities. These images as he showed by specimens, are all clothed Master Masons in the same apron as the Egyptian kings and priests and point irrefutably to a universal knowledge of the secrets behind the square and the compasses.
Figure 1: Illustration from page 19 of Ancient Freemasonry by Frank C. Higgins.
“We see thus indicated throughout the world,” said Mr. Higgins, “the Masonic brotherhood, erected thousands of years prior to any civilization of which we may have any present record, to the same ever living God whom we worship as the ‘Great Architect of the Universe.’ ”